By Marcus Cowper, Peter Dennis
In the early twelfth century advert a wide zone of present-day France was once no longer less than the direct keep watch over of the French king. in truth, the French king's direct authority stretched little additional than Paris and the realm instantly round it, the Ile de France. a few of the different areas have been semi-independent duchies and counties, managed by means of, among others, the King of britain and the Holy Roman Emperor. One such quarter loose from direct French regulate used to be the Languedoc, the realm stretching from the Massif relevant south to the Pyrenees, and so far as the river Rhone to the east. This zone was once lower than the unfastened overlordship of the counts of Toulouse, and by means of the start of the twelfth century the complete sector had develop into the centre of an early kind of Protestantism referred to as Catharism that flourished to a unprecedented measure and threatened the rule of thumb of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope blameless III, alarmed at this heresy and the unwillingness of the southern the Aristocracy to do a lot to uproot it, introduced a campaign in 1209 opposed to ecu Christians. The crusading military, represented the verified Church consisting predominatly of northern French knights. They observed this as a chance either to 'take the pass' and to acquire new lands and wealth for themselves extra comfortably than crusading to the Holy land. This, the Albigensian campaign, grew to become a brutal fight among the north and the south of France up to among orthodox Roman Catholic and heretic Cathar.
The population of the Languedoc had continually relied for his or her security upon a sequence of strongly fortified walled towns, corresponding to Albi, Carcassonne, B_ziers, Toulouse and a lot of fortified hill-top villages and castles which dotted the nation-state. those so-called 'Cathar Castles' now grew to become the final shelter opposed to the invading crusaders and the clash built right into a sequence of protracted and bloody sieges that lasted for over 30 years. the writer describes those very forms of fortification, the walled urban and the hill-top fort. He explains why they have been located the place they have been, how they have been outfitted, and the protective rules in the back of their building, and in addition reports how good they withstood the try of the Albigensian Crusade.
The Crusades (Essential Histories)
Medieval Siege war (Elite)
French Medieval Armies 1000-1300 (Men-at-Arms)