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By Jeff Champion

Pyrrhus of Epirus was once rated by means of Hannibal because the moment maximum normal but noticeable (placing himself third). certainly, Hannibal observed Pyrrhus as his instructor, even if the 2 by no means met, seeing that he learnt rather a lot of the paintings of struggle from his writings. Pyrrhus used to be born into the royal residence of Epirus, northwest Greece, and used to be a second-cousin of Alexander the good. His mom was once compelled to escape into exile to guard his lifestyles while he was once a trifling boy or girl, but he prospered in stricken instances and went from a refugee to develop into king. continuously an adventurer with a watch for the most likelihood, he used to be deeply enthusiastic about the cut-and-thrust campaigning, coups and subterfuges of the Successor kingdoms. At quite a few instances he used to be king of Epirus (twice), Macedon (twice) and Sicily, in addition to overlord of a lot of southern Italy. In 281 BC he used to be invited through the southern Italian states to protect them opposed to the competitive enlargement of the burgeoning Roman republic. His early victories over the Roman armies at Heraclea and Asculum (assisted through his use of elephants) have been received at this sort of excessive cost in casualties that they gave us the expression 'Pyrrhic victory'. those battles have been the 1st clashes among the hitherto-dominant Hellenistic method of conflict (as built through Alexander) and the Roman legions, and so packed with tactical curiosity. He failed in Italy and Sicily but if directly to additional army adventures in Greece, ultimately being killed in motion whereas storming town of Argos.

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Sixty five; Diodorus, eleven. 20. 7. Diodorus, eleven. 21. eight. to not be careworn with the historian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus. nine. Diodorus, 14. forty seven. 10. Diodorus, 14. fifty one. eleven. Diodorus, 15. thirteen. 12. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 22. thirteen. Justin, 18. 2. 14. Polybius, three. 25. 15. Justin, 18. 2. sixteen. Appian, Samnite Wars, 28 17. Garoufalias, p. 392. 18. Diodorus, 22. eight. 19. Polybius, 6. 25. 20. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 22. Diodorus, 22. nine, documents merely 1,500 cavalry. 21. Justin, 23. three. 22. Goldsworthy, The Punic Wars (London, 2000), p. eighty two. 23. Diodorus, 22. 10; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 22. 24. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 22. 25. Curtius, eight. thirteen. 26. Polybius, 1. fifty six. 27. Justin, 23. three; Polybius, 7. four. 28. Diodorus, 22. 10, 24. 1. 29. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. 30. Garoufalias, p. 108. 31. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 32. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. 33. Dionysius, 20. eight. 34. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. such a lot historians persist with Plutarch's narrative and position this conflict sooner than the siege of Lilybauem. Plutarch's textual content here's, although, muddled. Nor can he be relied upon for exact chronology. for instance, prior in his lifetime of Pyrrhus he locations the plot to kill the king after the conflict of Heraclea, while all of the different resources relate it as taking place after the conflict of Asculum. For Pyrrhus to hold up the siege of Lilybaeum and march correct around the size of Sicily so as to defeat the Mamertines would seem to be not likely. 35. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. 36. Zonaras, 10. 6. 37. Justin, 23. three. 38. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. 39. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 23. bankruptcy eight 1. Zonaras, 10. 6. 2. Appian, Samnite Wars, 29; Diodorus, 27. four; Zonaras, 10. 6. three. Appian, Samnite Wars, 29; Justin 25. three. four. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 24. five. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 24. 6. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 24. 7. Justin, 25. three. eight. Dionysius, 20. nine. nine. Dionysius, 20. nine. 10. Dionysius, 20. 10. eleven. Livy, Periochae, 13-14. 12. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 25. thirteen. Dionysius. 20. 10; Garoufalias, p. 118. 14. Thucydides, 7. 43-4. 15. Dionysius, 20. eleven. sixteen. Frontinus, 2. 2. 1. 17. Polybius, 1. forty. 18. Aelian, de Natura Animalium, sixteen. 36; Orosius, four. 2. five; Scullard, The Elephant within the Greek and Roman international (London, 1974) p. 112. 19. Dionysius, 20. 12; Zonaras, 10. 6; Garoufalias, p. one hundred twenty. 20. Polybius, 18. 28; Justin, 25. five. 21. Polyaenus, 6. 6. 1; Justin, 25. three. 22. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 23. Dionysius, 20. sixteen. bankruptcy nine 1. Appian, Samnite Wars, 27. 2. Justin, 25. 1-2. three. Tarn, WW, Antigonos Gonatas (Chicago, 1969), pp. 169-170. four. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. five. Pausanias, 1. thirteen. 2. 6. Plutarch, Demetrius, 7. 7. Justin, 25. three; Pausanias, 1. thirteen. 2. eight. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. nine. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 10. Pausanias, 1. thirteen. 2. eleven. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 12. Justin, 25. four. thirteen. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 14. Polybius, 2. forty-one. 15. Polybius, five. 19. sixteen. Polyaenus, 6. 6. 2. 17. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 26. 18. Pausanias, 1. thirteen. three. 19. Garoufalias, p. 449. 20. Polyaenus, eight. forty nine. 21. Plutarch, Sayings of Spartans, Agesilaus, 29, 30. 22. Justin, 14. five; Pausanias, 1. thirteen. three. 23. Polybius, 18. three. 24. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 27. 25. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 27. 26. Plutarch, Sayings of Spartans, Areus 1. 27. Plutarch Pyrrhus, 29, a paraphrase of Homer's Iliad, 12. 243. 28. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 29. 29. Justin, 25. four. 30. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 30. 31. Justin, 25. four. 32. Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 30. 33. Plutarch, Pyrrhus,, 30.

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