Download E-books Reasoning About Knowledge (MIT Press) PDF

By Joseph Y. Halpern

Reasoning approximately knowledge--particularly the data of brokers who cause concerning the global and every other's knowledge--was as soon as the particular province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. extra lately, this sort of reasoning has been proven to play a key function in a shocking variety of contexts, from figuring out conversations to the research of allotted desktop algorithms.Reasoning approximately wisdom is the 1st booklet to supply a basic dialogue of techniques to reasoning approximately wisdom and its functions to disbursed structures, synthetic intelligence, and video game thought. It brings 8 years of labor through the authors right into a cohesive framework for realizing and studying reasoning approximately wisdom that's intuitive, mathematically good based, necessary in perform, and greatly acceptable. The booklet is nearly thoroughly self-contained and will be obtainable to readers in a number of disciplines, together with computing device technology, man made intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive technology, and video game thought. every one bankruptcy comprises routines and bibliographic notes.

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Three. 7. 2 First-Order Modal common sense . . . . . . three. 7. three Assumptions on domain names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 four eight . . . . . 15 15 23 25 31 38 . . . . . . . . . . forty nine fifty one sixty five 70 seventy three seventy four seventy eight eighty eighty one eighty four 86 viii three. 7. four four five 6 7 houses of data in Relational Kripke constructions . . 87 wisdom in Multi-Agent platforms four. 1 Runs and structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. 2 Incorporating wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three Incorporating Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. four Examples of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. four. 1 wisdom Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . four. four. 2 online game timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. four. three Synchronous platforms . . . . . . . . . . four. four. four excellent keep in mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. four. five Message-Passing platforms . . . . . . . . four. four. 6 Asynchronous Message-Passing platforms four. five wisdom achieve in A. M. P. platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 109 116 121 123 123 131 a hundred thirty five 136 138 141 one hundred forty five Protocols and courses five. 1 activities . . . . . . . . five. 2 Protocols and Contexts five. three courses . . . . . . . five. four standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 163 167 one hundred eighty 183 . . . . . . . . . . 189 a hundred ninety 199 206 213 218 224 225 226 230 232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . universal wisdom and contract 6. 1 Coordinated assault . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 2 Agreeing to Disagree . . . . . . . . . . . 6. three Simultaneous Byzantine contract . . . 6. four Nonrigid units and customary wisdom . 6. five reaching SBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6 achieving universal wisdom . . . . . 6. 6. 1 fresh Rounds . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. 2 Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. three Computing universal wisdom 6. 7 targeted Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge-Based Programming 253 7. 1 Knowledge-Based courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 7. 2 Getting specified Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 7. three wisdom Bases Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 ix 7. four 7. five 7. 6 7. 7 eight nine A Knowledge-Based application for SBA powerful Correctness . . . . . . . . . . . The Sequence-Transmission challenge . Proving robust Correctness of ST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 281 283 290 Evolving wisdom eight. 1 homes of information and Time . . . eight. 2 Synchrony and ideal keep in mind . . . . . eight. three wisdom and Time in A. M. P. structures eight. four wisdom and Time in Inoa ( ) . . . . eight. five a more in-depth examine Axiom OAn, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 303 307 311 313 318 Logical Omniscience nine. 1 Logical Omniscience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. 2 specific illustration of data . . . . . nine. 2. 1 The Syntactic technique . . . . . . . . nine. 2. 2 The Semantic procedure . . . . . . . . nine. 2. three dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three Nonstandard good judgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three. 1 Nonstandard buildings . . . . . . . . nine. three. 2 powerful Implication . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three. three A Payoff: Querying wisdom Bases . nine. three. four dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. four most unlikely Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. five wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. 6 neighborhood Reasoning .

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