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A modern examine of the early American kingdom and its evolving democracy, from a French aristocrat and sociologistIn 1831 Alexis de Tocqueville, a tender French aristocrat and bold civil servant, set out from post-revolutionary France on a trip throughout the USA that will take him nine months and canopy 7,000 miles.
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Every thing approximately Sarah Bernhardt is attention-grabbing, from her vague delivery to her excellent career—redefining the very nature of her art—to her extraordinary (and hugely public) romantic existence to her indomitable spirit. good into her seventies, after the amputation of her leg, she used to be appearing below bombardment for squaddies in the course of international struggle I, in addition to crisscrossing the US on her 9th American journey.
Extra info for The Cambridge Companion to Modern French Culture (Cambridge Companions to Culture)
Renault introduced a sublime four-seater, the Dauphine, in 1956. even though derived routinely from the 4CV, its fresh, monocoque external gave it enormous attract children. Its tremendous revenues in different places in Europe boosted France’s photo as a resource of recent layout. A distinctively French layout was once now not regularly required. in spite of the fact that. Simca, formerly generating autos for different businesses, introduced in 1957 the ﬁrst renowned French motor vehicle to have transatlantic strains. This, the Simca Aronde, made liberal use of chrome and recalled the 1957 Chevrolet. Simca went directly to produce an open-top luxurious automobile just like the Ford Thunderbird. vehicle vendors most well liked French versions, simply as they most well-liked French wine, and into the Eighties they outnumbered international cars on French roads. the end result was once a small variety of varieties which have been known as in general French, not just in France yet around the world. The French valued motor vehicle possession; in 1991 seventy six. eight in keeping with cent of families owned one vehicle or extra, in comparison to sixty eight in step with cent in Germany and sixty six in line with cent within the united kingdom. the tale of French automobile layout was once a cultural triumph for the conservative, classical kingdom with which we begun. The scope for conservatism in aeronautical layout was once under for autos, yet French makers sought fresh strains and coherent varieties from the beginning. The Breguet 14, the ﬁrst plane for use on passenger ﬂights after ´ the 1st global struggle, used to be already a good-looking biplane. within the Twenties French Farman airliners, reminiscent of the F180 Oiseau bleu, have been a chic presence at the renowned Paris–London course. Its competitor in this direction, the Loire´ et Olivier 213, seemed strong at the outdoor and its inside, designed like a railway eating motor vehicle for the lunchtime carrier to London, used to be the lap of luxurious with its strip home windows and studded leather-based seats, to not converse of its well-stocked bars. The French didn't get seriously excited about passenger airships and a chain of robust passenger airliners emerged within the Nineteen Thirties. those have been steel monoplanes they usually have been extra beautiful than the enormous biplanes utilized by Imperial airlines till the top of the Thirties. Dewoitine, Potez and Bloch produced a few very appealing dual and tri-motor airliners which outshone so much in their German equivalents in visible phrases. The Bloch 220, an all-metal bi-motor which Air France introduced into carrier in 1937, might nonetheless be in commonplace use after the conflict. The Dewoitine D338, a longrange tri-motor, was once brought in 1936, permitting Air France to supply seventy nine 80 Anthony Sutcliffe the quickest carrier (one and a part hours) among Paris and London, in addition to ﬂying a multi-stop path to Hong Kong. those planes regarded beautiful in provider and in addition within the creative posters utilized by Air France around the world. the improvement of the jet engine gave France an opportunity to make a brand new commence in airplane layout after the barren Vichy and early postwar years. the 2 British Comet mess ups in 1954 set again the British airplane through 4 years and the smaller French Caravelle, designed and equipped by way of Sud-Aviation on the modernising urban of Toulouse, was once in a position to meet medium-range call for in the course of the overdue Nineteen Fifties and the Nineteen Sixties, promoting 280 examples.