By Clifford Geertz
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Extra resources for The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays
Speculations at the Interrelations of instruments and Bioloaica1 Evolulion. - in Th� evolution of Man's potential for tradition, cd. J. M. Spuhler (Detroit, 1959), pp. 21-31. n A. I. Hallowell, "Culture, PersonalilY and Society," in A"thropology this present day. ed. A. L. Kroeber (Chicalo. 19B), pp. 597-620. Cf. A. I. Hallowell, "Behavioral Evolution and the Emergence of the Self," in £�ol/ltlol1 and Anthropology: A Ctl1tcn"ial Apprailal. ed. eight. J. Me&&ers (Washinlton, D. C. , 19! 19), pp. 36-60. 19 okay roeber Anthropology, p. ! l73. sr . sixty six the translation OF CULTURES research human maturation with a long time as his period may see grownup. hood as a unexpected transformation of formative years and omit early life al jointly. a great instance of this type of cavalier method of temporal considera tions is implicit in what's essentially the most widespread type of medical information invoked i n aid of the "difference in variety instead of distinction in measure" view of human tradition; the comparability of guy together with his clos est residing family, the pongids, and especially the chimpanzee. guy can speak, can signify, can collect tradition, this argument is going, however the chimpanzee (and, by means of extension, all less-endowed animals) can't. for that reason. guy is exclusive during this regard, and insofar as mentality is con cerned "we are faced through a sequence of leaps, no longer an ascending continuum. " 30 yet this overlooks the truth that, even supposing the pongids should be man's closest relations, "close" is an elastic time period and, given a pragmatic time scale from the cvolutionary standpoint, they're particularly now not so shut in any respect, final universal ancestor being not less than an top Pliocene (and on the very so much an higher Oligocene) ape and phy letic differentiation having proceeded with ever-increasing rapidity on the grounds that that point. the truth that chimpanzees don't speak is either intercsting and significant, yet to attract from that truth the belief that speech is an all-or- nothing-at-all phenomenon is to break down wherever from one to 40 million years right into a unmarried immediate of time and lose the entire pre sapiens hominid line as definitely as our biologist misplaced youth. Inter particular comparability of dwelling animals is, if dealt with with care, a legiti mate and, in truth, integral machine for deducing common evolution ary traits; yet i n a similar approach that the finite wave size of sunshine limits the discrimination attainable in ;>hysical measurements, so the indisputable fact that the nearest dwelling relations of guy are at most sensible lovely a long way re moved cousins (flot ancestors) limits the measure of refinement within the degree of evolutionary switch within the hominoid line whilst one confines oneself completely to contrasts among extant varieties. 31 If, to the contrary, we unfold hominid phylogeny out alongside a extra acceptable time scale, education our recognition on what turns out to have occurred i n the "human" line because the radiation of the hominoids. and of :10 L. A. White, " F�ur Stage5 i n the Evolution of Minding," in Tht EVOlution �an. ed. S. Tax (Ch �C8&0 . 1960), pp. 239-253; �he . raument is quite common .