By Mircea Eliade
In this landmark e-book the popular student of faith Mircea Eliade lays the foundation for a Western realizing of Yoga, exploring how its tenet, that of freedom, includes ultimate on the planet with no letting oneself be exhausted through such "conditionings" as time and historical past. Drawing on years of research and event in India, Eliade presents a finished survey of Yoga in conception and perform from its earliest foreshadowings within the Vedas throughout the 20th century. the themes mentioned contain Patañjali, writer of the Yoga-sutras; yogic thoughts, equivalent to focus "on a unmarried Point," postures, and respiration self-discipline; and Yoga on the subject of Brahmanism, Buddhism, Tantrism, Oriental alchemy, mystical erotism, and shamanism.
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Additional info for Yoga: Immortality and Freedom (Bollingen Series, Vol. LVI)
Thirteen Mok�adharma, 1 1 ,682. 1 2 E. g. , Bhagavad Gztli, III, s. 1 five Ibid. , 1 1 ,691 , and so forth. 14 Ibid. , 1 1 ,675 ff. 1 forty nine " Y O G A : I M M O RTA LITY A N D FREEDOM or "renunciation" ( samzylisa ) , sixteen and so forth. This number of meanings corresponds to a true morphological variety. If the note "yoga" capability many stuff, that's simply because Yoga is many stuff. For the epic is the assembly position of numerous ascetic and well known traditions, every one With its personal "Yoga"-that is, its specific mys tical procedure. the numerous centuries dunng which new episodes have been interpolated allowed a lot of these sorts of "baroque" Yoga to discover a spot ( and a justification ) , ·with the outcome that the epic used to be reworked into an encyclopedia. In wide define, we will be able to distinguish 3 sessions of information of attainable curiosity to our examine: ( I ) episodes related to asceticism ( tapas) , and revealing practices and theories heavily regarding Vedic ascesis yet with out references to Yoga, effectively speakmg; ( 2 ) episodes and discourses in wh1ch Yoga and tapas are synony mous and are either considered as magical suggestions ; ( s ) didactic discourses and episodes during which Yoga is gifted with a philo sophically elaborated terminology of its personal. it's in particular the files during this 3rd category-most of them inside the Mok�adharma-that we regard as of curiosity, for they display a few kinds of Yoga which are inadequately documented in other places. we discover, for instance, super historic "magical" practices, which yogins use to persuade the gods or even to terrorize them. 17 The phenomenology of this magical asceticism is archaic: silence ( mauna ) , severe torture ( ativatapas ) , "desiccation of the body," are potential hired not just ·by yogins but additionally by means of kings. 1s to maneuver lndra ( lirzrlidhayi�ur devam ) , Paogu stands on one foot for an afternoon and hence obtains samlidhi. 19 yet this trance indicates no yogic content material; really, it's a hypnosis provoked through actual capacity, and the kin among the fellow and the god stay at the point of magic. somewhere else Yoga and natural asceticism, tapas, are stressed. 2° 1 6 Bhagavad Gitli, VI, 2. 1 7 Cf. Hauer, Die Anfiinge der Yogapraxis, pp. ninety eight ff. we now have stumbled on comparable examples between a few of the wandering ascet1cs ( see above, p. 1 S 6 ) . 1 eight Mahabharata, 1,. 1 1 five, 24; I, 1 1 nine, 7 and S4. 20 E. g. , ibid. , XII, 1 5S, S6. 19 lbtd. , I, 1 2. nine, 26. 1 50 IV. The Triumph of Yoga Yatin ( ascetic ) and yogin develop into an identical phrases, and at last either come to designate any being "desirous of concentrating his brain" (yuyuk�at ) and whose item of analysis isn't the scriptures ( Siistra) , however the mystical syllable 0¥. there's little question that the "study of the syllable OM" designates innovations interested by mystical audition, with repetition and "assimilation" of specific magical formulation ( dhiirmJi ) , with incantation, and so on. yet, regardless of the process selected, those practices are topped by means of the purchase of a strength that our texts name the "force of Yoga" (yoga-balam ) . Its rapid reason is ' 'fixatwn of mind'' ( dhiira?